Morphological key to the species and varieties of Aspidistra from southern Vietnam


1. Leaves crowded at rhizome in groups by 2–5 


1. Leaves solitary


2. Perigone campanulate. Pistil cylindrical, 1.9–2.5 mm high 

A. cylindrica Vislobokov & Nuraliev

2. Perigone urceolate or tubular. Pistil mushroom-shaped or table-shaped, 3–7 mm high


3. Stigma conoid, 7 mm in diam, with irregular curly radial crests

A. carnosa Tillich

3. Stigma peltate, orbicular, 1.5–2.5 mm in diam, 3-lobed 

A. minutiflora Stapf

4. Tepals completely fused into tube, leaving an opening of only 1–1.5 mm in diam

  A. locii Arnautov & Bogner

4. Tepals completely fused into tube, leaving an opening of only 1–1.5 mm in diam 


5. Perigone lobes (2)3–4 

A. paucitepala Vislobokov, Nuraliev & D.D.Sokoloff

5. Perigone lobes usually more than 4 (except individual flowers)


6. Perigone lobes usually 8 (rarely 9–10)


6. Perigone lobes usually 6 (rarely 4–8)


7. Stigma shortly obpyramidal, 8–10 mm in diam, adaxial surface dirty purple-violet, irregularly folded forming prominent radial ridges and deep grooves

A. elatior Blume var. vietnamensis Aver. & Tillich

7. Stigma dome-shaped, 12–17 mm in diam, adaxial surface marmorate with dark and pale purple, smooth


8. Perigone lobes connate at their tips and forming cage around pistil. Bowl-shaped base of perigone 1 cm in diam (2–3 cm if lobes open)

A. connata Tillich var. connata

8. Perigone lobes free, open upon maturity. Bowl-shaped base of perigone 1.8–2 cm in diam (3.5–5 cm if lobes open)

A. connata Tillich var. radiata Tillich & Škorničk.

9. Stamens twice as many as perigone lobes

A. dodecandra (Gagnep.) Tillich

9. Stamens in the same number as perigone lobes

10. Perigone campanulate or somewhat tubular

10. Perigone clearly urceolate

11. Perigone 10–14 mm in diam. Leaf lamina narrowly elliptic to linear, 1.2–2 cm wide

A. renatae Bräuchler

11. Perigone 25–35 mm in diam. Leaf lamina lanceolate to elliptic, 3–10 cm wide

12. Flower upright. Perigone lobes stiff, upright, 35–40 mm long. Tepals free nearly to base, each adaxially with one very prominent median keel at proximal half

A. stricta Tillich

12. Flower nutant. Perigone lobes flat, straight or slightly reflexed, 6–8(10) mm long. Tepals free for about half, without keels

A. truongii Aver. & Tillich

13. Perigone lobes white or green adaxially. Perigone 13–16 mm in diam

13. Perigone completely purple (sometimes red mottled), 17–20 mm in diam

14. Stigma completely dark purple, with velvety appearance, lower half obconical, with 6 prominent longitudinal ridges, upper half truncated cone-shaped with numerous longitudinal grooves. Perigone lobes triangular, yellow-green, with 4 keels

A. mirostigma Tillich & Škorničk

14. Stigma white or violet mottled, circular, disc-shaped, 3-lobed, each lobe distally bifurcate. Perigone lobes ligulate, white, with 2 keels

A. phanluongii N. Vislobokov

15. Perigone mouth 6 mm in diam. Stigma 15 mm in diam, adaxial surface cream-coloured with purple tinge, rough with projections; abaxial surface smooth, purple tinged with cream-coloured 12-rayed star in centre

A. ventricosa Tillich & Škorničk.

15. Perigone mouth 13 mm in diam. Stigma 10 mm in diam, uniformly smooth and white

16. Perigone dull-green, red mottled abaxially, with smooth surfaces

A. opaca Tillich var. opaca

16. Perigone completely deep purple, with rugose surfaces

A. opaca Tillich var. rugosa Tillich

Sourses: Vislobokov et al. (2016) Syst. Bot. 41(1):160-165.